Mold: Penicillium verrucosum

Penicillium verrucosumMycotoxin: Ochratoxin A

Health Effects: Ochratoxin A has been shown to interfere with cellular physiology in multiple ways. It inhibits synthesis of phenylalanine t-RNA complex, inhibits mitochondrial ATP production, and stimulates lipid peroxidation. It has been demonstrated to be Nephrotoxic, Hepatotoxic, and Carcinogenic and is a potent teratogen and immune-suppressant. It has also been associated with urinary tract infections and bladder cancers. Ochratoxin has been detected in blood and other animal tissues and in milk, including human milk.